Natural Resources

Essential Essay Questions:

Eukaryotic cells have many structures and functions, one being the nucleus. The

nucleus is a large membrane with a enclosed structure that contains genetic material

(DNA) and controls the activities of the cell. The Nucleus in bound by a double membrane

called the nuclear envelope. The nuclear envelope removes the contents in the nucleus from

The cytoplasm. Phospholipids are in the nuclear envelope. The envelope helps keep the

form that the nucleus has And helps regulate the flow of molecules into in and out of the

nucleus. The Nucleus contains nucleoplasm and chromatin.

The Plasma Membrane A.K.A the Cell membrane is a thin barrier surrounding the

cell. Lipids and proteins form the outside of the cytoplasm that regulates the passage of

molecules in and out of a cell. Lipids and proteins are found within the cell membrane. The

fundamental structure is phospholipid bilayer.

The Cell Wall is a strong layer surrounding the membrane. Has a rigid layer of

polysaccharides lying on the outside of the cell membrane of plants, fungi, and bacteria. Consists

mainly of cellulose , a structural carbohydrate,in plants and algae. The cell wall consist of 3 layers.

Those being the primary cell wall, middle lamella and secondary cell wall.

The Mitochondria converts chemical energy from food into energy best for the cells use. Its

has 2 membranes (outer membrane acting as a skin, and inner membrane creating layered

structures) and a fluid called matrix.

The Vacuole stores materials like water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates.Membrane

bound sacs within cytoplasm of cell. Has cell sap, center vacuole tonoplast.

The Chloroplast takes energy from the sun and converts it into food that contains chemical

energy in a process known as photosynthesis. Has two membranes. The inner membrane surrounds

the stroma and grana. Stroma lamellae, thylakoids, stroma and starch are apart of chloroplast.

Ribosomes assemble proteins and particles consisting of RNA found in larger numbers

within the cytoplasm of living cells. Its tiesmRNA togetherand transfers RNA to arrange

polypeptides and proteins. Has two different subunits, large and small subunits. Contains amino

acids, tRNA and mRNA.

Charles Darwin was a british naturalist who proposed the theory of natural selection.

The idea that species change over a period of time, give rise to new species, and share a common

ancestor. He proposed natural selection because natural resources are limited in nature. Organisms

with heritable traits that favor survival and reproduction will tend to leave more offspring than

their peers, causing traits to increase over genetics. Natural selection causes populations to become

adapted, or increasingly well-suited to their environment over time.

Protein is three dimensional arrangement of atoms in an amino acid-chain molecule. Protein

forms from sequences of amino acids. Protein helps with muscle growth, fat loss, and all things to

do with appearance.

Lipids are phospholipids and are quite similar to soap. They consist of glycans attached to

phosphate groups and two fatty acids or carboxylic acids. Lipids provide energy and produce

hormones. They help with the digestive system.

Carbohydrates are molecular compounds made from three elements: Carbon, Hydrogen,

oxygen.

Nucleic acids, like DNA and RNA, divided into 4 different levels; primary, secondary,

tertiary, quaternary.

Photosynthesis (6CO2+6H2O-C6H12O6+O6)) is the process used by plants in which energy

from sunlight is used to convert carbon dioxide and water into molecules needed for growth. These

molecules include sugars, enzymes, and chlorophyll.

Cellular Respiration (C6H12O6+6O2-6CO2+6H20+ATP) is the process by which organisms

combine oxygen with foodstuff molecules, diverting the chemical energy into life sustaining

activities and discarding as waste products, carbon dioxide and water. Organisms that do not

depend on oxygen degrade foodstuffs in a process called fermentation.

Career in Biology:

Biotechnologist set up instruments and laboratory equipment to help conduct and

monitor experiments. They also record data and prepare reports. A 4 year year

undergraduate degree (Bachelor) is required to be a entry level biotechnologist. A couple

classes people may take could be microbiology, anthropology, biochemistry, and molecular

biology. The median salary of a biotechnologist is $42,520 per year. Salaries ranges from

$27,660 - $69,540. There's a special training program called “Biotechnology

Entrepreneurship Special TrainingProgram” that an aspiring biotechnologist could

attend. Jobs in biotechnology were expected to increase 5% between 2014-2024, adding

4,100 new positions.

Genetic Disorders:

Hemophilia is caused by mutations in genetic codes for proteins that are essential in

blood clotting. The process of blood clotting involves a series of complex mechanisms

involving 13 different proteinsin terms of roman numerals I-XIII. If the lining of the blood

vessels become damaged, platelets are used to keep the blood from spreading. The platelets

release chemicals that start the clogging process. Activating the 13 proteins known as

clotting factors.

Hemophilia A: Caused by a mutation in the gene for factor VIII, causing a

deficiency of clotting.

Hemophilia B: Result from a deficiency of factor IX due to a mutation in the

corresponding gene.

Hemophilia C: Caused by a mutation in clogging factor XI.

Hemophilia can cause pain in the joints, bleeding, blood in stool, heavy or prolonged

periods, internal bleeding, nosebleeds, swollen joints, and many large bruises. Treatments

consist of medication to improve blood clotting, and injections of a clotting factor/plasma.

Treatment centers include CDC, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of

Chicago, Arizona Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center of Phoenix Children's Hospital,

Arizona Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center University, Arkansas Center for Bleeding

Disorders, and many more.

Cancer and Mitosis:

When a cell divides it creates two identical daughter cells that each carry a copy of

the original cells DNA. This is called Mitosis and errors in this process cause incorrect DNA

copies. The effects of these errors range from benign to deadly. Depending on the number

and type of error this could possibly cause cancer.

Malignant- very infectious, disposed to cause harm, suffering, or distress.

Benign- Having a kindly disposition, gracious, showing or expressing kindness,

favorable, healthful, pleasant or beneficial, not malignant, self limiting.

Tumor- swollen part, swelling, uncontrollable, abnormal circumscribed growth of

cells in any animal, plant tissues, neoplasm.

Metastasis- Transfer of disease producing organisms or of malignant cells to other

parts of the body by way of the blood or lymphatic vessels or membranous structures.

Apoptosis- Normal,genetically, regulated process leading to the death of cells,

triggered by presence or absence of certain stimuli, as DNA damage.

Cell division occurs in living organisms. Millions of cells are divided to maintain

homeostasis. Cell division serves an important role in an organism's healthiness.

Majority of the time prostate cancer progresses to an apoptosis independent stage,

at that point therapy is no longer an option. Therefore, it's important to understand the

molecular mechanisms underlying prostate cancer progression, and how prostate cancer

cells avoid apoptosis that give rise to the uncontrollable growth behaviour.

I have no reason for choosing prostate cancer, it was a random pick. Prostate cancer

is a result of a change in DNA of a normal penslate cell. People may experience pain within

their bones alongside urinary issues. Treatment consists of supportive care, medical

procedures, surgery, medication, and specialists.

Conserving Our Environment:

An overpopulated earth can cause the reduction of natural resources. Humans need

natural resources to survive. If the earth is overpopulated then natural resources start

running out. Once people die they go away forever possibly leaving offspring. When people

die other people replace them keeping the population growing or staying the same, keeping

a fluent use of natural resources.

Global warming is an increase in the overall temperature of the earth's

atmosphere. The cause of global warming is having to much carbon dioxide,

chlorofluorocarbons, and other pollutants. People litter and pollute the earth with chemicals, like

arsenic, that contaminate water and soil which is very harmful to the environment. The Greenhouse

Effect is sunlight having trouble reflecting off the earth back into space due to the burning of fossil

fuels and the removal of trees. With fossil fuels being hydrocarbons (Coal, Fuel, oil) they release

carbon dioxide when burnt. The greenhouse effect and global warming have both caused the hole in

the ozone layer. The ozone layer is apart of the atmosphere which protects the earth from radiation

from the sun.With there being a hole in the ozone layer we no longer have the protection from the

atmosphere that we need.