Essential Essay Questions:
Eukaryotic cells have many structures and functions, one being the nucleus. The
nucleus is a large membrane with a enclosed structure that contains genetic material
(DNA) and controls the activities of the cell. The Nucleus in bound by a double membrane
called the nuclear envelope. The nuclear envelope removes the contents in the nucleus from
The cytoplasm. Phospholipids are in the nuclear envelope. The envelope helps keep the
form that the nucleus has And helps regulate the flow of molecules into in and out of the
nucleus. The Nucleus contains nucleoplasm and chromatin.
The Plasma Membrane A.K.A the Cell membrane is a thin barrier surrounding the
cell. Lipids and proteins form the outside of the cytoplasm that regulates the passage of
molecules in and out of a cell. Lipids and proteins are found within the cell membrane. The
fundamental structure is phospholipid bilayer.
The Cell Wall is a strong layer surrounding the membrane. Has a rigid layer of
polysaccharides lying on the outside of the cell membrane of plants, fungi, and bacteria. Consists
mainly of cellulose , a structural carbohydrate,in plants and algae. The cell wall consist of 3 layers.
Those being the primary cell wall, middle lamella and secondary cell wall.
The Mitochondria converts chemical energy from food into energy best for the cells use. Its
has 2 membranes (outer membrane acting as a skin, and inner membrane creating layered
structures) and a fluid called matrix.
The Vacuole stores materials like water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates.Membrane
bound sacs within cytoplasm of cell. Has cell sap, center vacuole tonoplast.
The Chloroplast takes energy from the sun and converts it into food that contains chemical
energy in a process known as photosynthesis. Has two membranes. The inner membrane surrounds
the stroma and grana. Stroma lamellae, thylakoids, stroma and starch are apart of chloroplast.
Ribosomes assemble proteins and particles consisting of RNA found in larger numbers
within the cytoplasm of living cells. Its tiesmRNA togetherand transfers RNA to arrange
polypeptides and proteins. Has two different subunits, large and small subunits. Contains amino
acids, tRNA and mRNA.
Charles Darwin was a british naturalist who proposed the theory of natural selection.
The idea that species change over a period of time, give rise to new species, and share a common
ancestor. He proposed natural selection because natural resources are limited in nature. Organisms
with heritable traits that favor survival and reproduction will tend to leave more offspring than
their peers, causing traits to increase over genetics. Natural selection causes populations to become
adapted, or increasingly well-suited to their environment over time.
Protein is three dimensional arrangement of atoms in an amino acid-chain molecule. Protein
forms from sequences of amino acids. Protein helps with muscle growth, fat loss, and all things to
do with appearance.
Lipids are phospholipids and are quite similar to soap. They consist of glycans attached to
phosphate groups and two fatty acids or carboxylic acids. Lipids provide energy and produce
hormones. They help with the digestive system.
Carbohydrates are molecular compounds made from three elements: Carbon, Hydrogen,
Nucleic acids, like DNA and RNA, divided into 4 different levels; primary, secondary,
Photosynthesis (6CO2+6H2O-C6H12O6+O6)) is the process used by plants in which energy
from sunlight is used to convert carbon dioxide and water into molecules needed for growth. These
molecules include sugars, enzymes, and chlorophyll.
Cellular Respiration (C6H12O6+6O2-6CO2+6H20+ATP) is the process by which organisms
combine oxygen with foodstuff molecules, diverting the chemical energy into life sustaining
activities and discarding as waste products, carbon dioxide and water. Organisms that do not
depend on oxygen degrade foodstuffs in a process called fermentation.
Career in Biology:
Biotechnologist set up instruments and laboratory equipment to help conduct and
monitor experiments. They also record data and prepare reports. A 4 year year
undergraduate degree (Bachelor) is required to be a entry level biotechnologist. A couple
classes people may take could be microbiology, anthropology, biochemistry, and molecular
biology. The median salary of a biotechnologist is $42,520 per year. Salaries ranges from
$27,660 - $69,540. There's a special training program called “Biotechnology
Entrepreneurship Special TrainingProgram” that an aspiring biotechnologist could
attend. Jobs in biotechnology were expected to increase 5% between 2014-2024, adding
4,100 new positions.
Hemophilia is caused by mutations in genetic codes for proteins that are essential in
blood clotting. The process of blood clotting involves a series of complex mechanisms
involving 13 different proteinsin terms of roman numerals I-XIII. If the lining of the blood
vessels become damaged, platelets are used to keep the blood from spreading. The platelets
release chemicals that start the clogging process. Activating the 13 proteins known as
Hemophilia A: Caused by a mutation in the gene for factor VIII, causing a
deficiency of clotting.
Hemophilia B: Result from a deficiency of factor IX due to a mutation in the
Hemophilia C: Caused by a mutation in clogging factor XI.
Hemophilia can cause pain in the joints, bleeding, blood in stool, heavy or prolonged
periods, internal bleeding, nosebleeds, swollen joints, and many large bruises. Treatments
consist of medication to improve blood clotting, and injections of a clotting factor/plasma.
Treatment centers include CDC, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of
Chicago, Arizona Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center of Phoenix Children's Hospital,
Arizona Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center University, Arkansas Center for Bleeding
Disorders, and many more.
Cancer and Mitosis:
When a cell divides it creates two identical daughter cells that each carry a copy of
the original cells DNA. This is called Mitosis and errors in this process cause incorrect DNA
copies. The effects of these errors range from benign to deadly. Depending on the number
and type of error this could possibly cause cancer.
Malignant- very infectious, disposed to cause harm, suffering, or distress. Benign- Having a kindly disposition, gracious, showing or expressing kindness,
favorable, healthful, pleasant or beneficial, not malignant, self limiting.
Tumor- swollen part, swelling, uncontrollable, abnormal circumscribed growth of
cells in any animal, plant tissues, neoplasm.
Metastasis- Transfer of disease producing organisms or of malignant cells to other
parts of the body by way of the blood or lymphatic vessels or membranous structures.
Apoptosis- Normal,genetically, regulated process leading to the death of cells,
triggered by presence or absence of certain stimuli, as DNA damage.
Cell division occurs in living organisms. Millions of cells are divided to maintain
homeostasis. Cell division serves an important role in an organism's healthiness.
Majority of the time prostate cancer progresses to an apoptosis independent stage,
at that point therapy is no longer an option. Therefore, it's important to understand the
molecular mechanisms underlying prostate cancer progression, and how prostate cancer
cells avoid apoptosis that give rise to the uncontrollable growth behaviour.
I have no reason for choosing prostate cancer, it was a random pick. Prostate cancer
is a result of a change in DNA of a normal penslate cell. People may experience pain within
their bones alongside urinary issues. Treatment consists of supportive care, medical
procedures, surgery, medication, and specialists.
Conserving Our Environment:
An overpopulated earth can cause the reduction of natural resources. Humans need
natural resources to survive. If the earth is overpopulated then natural resources start
running out. Once people die they go away forever possibly leaving offspring. When people
die other people replace them keeping the population growing or staying the same, keeping
a fluent use of natural resources.
Global warming is an increase in the overall temperature of the earth's
atmosphere. The cause of global warming is having to much carbon dioxide,
chlorofluorocarbons, and other pollutants. People litter and pollute the earth with chemicals, like
arsenic, that contaminate water and soil which is very harmful to the environment. The Greenhouse
Effect is sunlight having trouble reflecting off the earth back into space due to the burning of fossil
fuels and the removal of trees. With fossil fuels being hydrocarbons (Coal, Fuel, oil) they release
carbon dioxide when burnt. The greenhouse effect and global warming have both caused the hole in
the ozone layer. The ozone layer is apart of the atmosphere which protects the earth from radiation
from the sun.With there being a hole in the ozone layer we no longer have the protection from the
atmosphere that we need.