Special Educational Needs
This essay will be critically analysed and discussed on the concerns for Daisy and the support that she needs based on evidence from the scenario provided. This essay will also be looking at what child abuse is and what type of support does the family need. This essay will also provide an understanding to the present legislative framework and procedures that must be followed appropriately and how different professionals work together in order for the child and family needs to be met.
Child abuse is when you treat a child very badly it could be physically such as causing injuries, sexual assault, rape and violation. It could also be emotionally and neglecting. It is also a violation of a child rights for example it makes a child who is vulnerable to do things they do not want to do or prevents them from doing things they want to do. Vulnerable means when a child is not able to protect them-selves or a child who has to rely on others in terms of being mentally and physically disabled. This affects a child’s well-being and the need for societies to take action is increasingly recognised (Johansson, 2017).
According to the (HM Government, 2018) described safeguarding an action taken to promote the welfare of children and protect them from harm, safeguarding is everybody’s responsibility that requires people to working together to safeguard children. Safeguarding guidelines includes protecting children from abuse, preventing harm of the children’s health and development, effective care and taking action to enable children to have the best outcome.
The immediate concerns on Daisy is that she has speech delay, may have hearing problems and her behaviour has been aggressive. Practitioners are aware of the indicators of abuse and how to respond to concerns. A practitioner role is to put the interest of the children in my care first and to protect them if they are considered to be at risk. Immediate concerns about abuse and neglect should be dealt with following the safeguarding procedure first. Raising concerns early can avoid trivial issues becoming serious ones. It is not always easy to report a concern especially when you may not know how to and worry that you are being disloyal to the family. As a practitioner It is essential to report concerns immediately by carefully recording what you have observed or are told and then inform the line manager or safeguarding officer. A written recording should clear, precise and dated. Knowledge of interagency procedures gives an ability to draw on knowledge of procedures for raising concerns when a child is at risk of harm or there are signs that they child is not achieving their potential in a learning environment. This includes procedures for making a referral to other agencies procedures for sharing concerns with other agencies (Nursing & Midwifery Council, 2015).
According to (Kimberlain, 2018) children who find it hard at hearing can find it more difficult to learn vocabulary, grammar and word order. This then leads them to behave aggressively. This adds up as Daisy has speech delay, which makes it hard for her to struggle to communicate. Without the right support, Daisy will tend to fall behind her classmates with normal hearing. The support that Daisy will need is a hearing specialist to evaluate Daisy’s hearing problems and gives advise and support in order to improve her condition. Because Daisy’s mother is not taking this seriously and did not show up for the hearing test shows that she is not taking this seriously. This is neglect as mother Lorna is ignoring her child needs by not listening.
Daisy will need a speech and language specialist who may assess and monitor Daisy’s understanding and use of language, listening and vocal skills. The specialist will suggest programmes to the early years setting to implement and will visit to monitor daisy’s progress. This leads to Daisy not being able to understand what is happening around her, understand and express what she is feeling. Adaptations and strategies will need to be put into place that manage and minimise the effect of Daisy’s hearing problem. A thorough assessment of Daisy’s needs and strength should take place, a plan on how the school will meet her needs and over come any barriers. The assess, plan, do, review cycle has been included into statutory guidance set out in the Special Educational Needs and Disability Code of Practice. Using this resource will help practitioner to show how this approach is being followed (NDCS, 2015: p10).
To identify Daisy behavioural problems metal services can provide a specialist to observe, listening and talking to Daisy. Practitioner has to observe her by writing down what is seen, so it keeps track on their progress on a regular basis. It is important for practitioner to be aware of Daisy’s needs so that programmes can be developed (Sharman & Cross, 2004: p4).
The early year setting will be work towards the Every Child Matters outcomes through common processes, including the Common Assessment Framework and the new information sharing. Common Assessment Framework is an early help inter-agency assessment that involves sharing assessment and planning framework for uses all children’s services. It aims o help the early the early identification of children special needs and promote co-ordinated service provision to meet them. The intention for this framework is to provide a simple process for a holistic assessment of a child’s needs and strengths, taking account of the role of parents and practitioner on their development. Practitioner will then discuss with the parents on what support is appropriate. Different professionals should work together to put processes in place for the effective assessment of the needs of individual children who may benefit from early help services. Children and families may need help from different professionals such as doctors, teachers, housing officer and police for their different needs. This assessment identifies what help the child and family needs to require preventing things from escalating to an extent where other involvement would be needed by regulations under the Children Act (Education and Skills Committee, 2006).
Section 17 of the children Act states that it is the local authority duty is to safeguard and promote the welfare of children who are in need. This Act defines a child in need, for an example a child who is disabled, a child who is unable to achieve or maintain a reasonable standard of development without the provision of services by a local authority And also a child who’s development is likely to be impaired. Concerns for Daisy have escalated as her behaviour deteriorates further and her behaviour is difficult to manage at home (Government, 2018).
According to (Kimberly, 2016) Children often behave aggressively for a variety reason such as a new baby in the family can have an effect on a child’s emotional development and behaviour. Daisy will need a tutor to support with her difficulty behaviour by following observations, writing down when the Daisy behaviour changes. Practitioner can help Daisy understand and process her feelings by reading books that talks about feelings and emotions. Practitioner can also help Daisy understand her behaviour by having a buddy to talk to when she is upset.
Practitioner should give information and advice to parents about financial help as they need extra hours, they will only get extra hours for four weeks. They will need it for long term. In order for Daisy’s needs to be met practitioners need to sort out Lorna’s issues in order for her to be good at parenting Daisy and ensuring that her Daisy needs are met. Parenting practices are connected with the children development outcomes; parental knowledge of child development is positively linked with quality parent-child interactions. Lorna needs to engage with Daisy in order for Daisy to do better and it will have positive effect to her behaviour, confidence and better results. This is why it is important that practitioner work in partnership with the parents, especially if they listen to each other and work together it could have a positive impact on Daisy’s well-being (National Academies of Sciences, 2016).
According to the national institute of child health and human development, parents are responsible in keeping their child safe, listening to children, be affection, be consistent and seek any help for any medical or behavioural problem. Lorna has not asked for any help from anybody, when the health visitor booked Daisy hearing test, Lorna did not go to her appointment and her reason was that Daisy does not have hearing problem and that she is being stubborn. This is an issue as Lorna is not ensuring that Daisy needs are met for her to attend an hearing test that could determine where Daisy has hearing problems and if she does then it could be sorted. Lorna is not being responsible (Good Therapy, 2017).
Behaviour management is to promote a positive, caring classroom that encourages children’s learning, positive peer, teacher relationships and self-motivation. As a practitioner it is essential to manage a classroom accordingly by ensuring that children are engaging throughout the lesson. Practitioner needs to set clear rules and routine for behaviour in classrooms, take responsibility for promoting good and courteous behaviour both in classrooms and around school, in accordance with the early year setting behaviour policy. And to also establish a framework for discipline with a range of strategies using praise, sanctions and rewards consistently and fairly (Charles, 2002: p224).
Social worker will need to require a special educational needs co-ordinator and that can be a teacher, they work together with practitioners and parents to ensure that Daisy with special educational needs gets he right support. Every early years or school should have a SENCO. Daisy’s speech and language therapists will be up to date with her progress. This will overcome the barriers to Daisy’s learning by setting goals for Daisy and make improvements (Education Trust, 2018).
Daisy needs positive reinforcement, personal recognition lets her know that practitioners are interested in her, how they behave and are concerned about supporting them in making positive changes in their behaviour and learning. Positive reinforcement also helps to build positive relationships by modelling appropriate ways of interacting with other children, practitioner need to find an appropriate reinforces that requires understanding and paying attention to Daisy’s needs (Cliver, 2017).
Practitioner needs to meet Daisy’s needs by being inclusive and to remove barriers in order for Daisy to achieve. To do this practitioner needs to do an initial assessment that will provide and insight of her abilities based on their knowledge, with this knowledge practitioner will be better equipped to accommodate her learning and additional needs.
The threshold of significant harm has not been reached; this can be resolved with other professionals getting involved such as a social worker. Sharing information will help other professionals to better understand the risks faced by the child. For example, practitioner has information on Daisy about her issues that is related to her parents that has a negative effect on her well-being. This information gives a clear picture of the child’s life and then an appropriate action will be taken as soon as possible in order to protect her (NSPCC, 2014).
Other professionals have their own role to participate and this ensures that daisy needs are met. Multi-agency is about working together and consulting each other to provide the quality care. It is compulsory that staffs work together especially if children are to be offered the support they need. Working together requires good communication and provides the best care. Successful multi-agency leaders tend to show a capacity to be visionary and to see the positive potential in situations and people. They listen and allow other professionals contribute, actively encouraging dialogue and discussion and being willing to obtain new perspectives and follow different approaches (Gasper, 2010).
Lorna and Danik will need to see a therapist to talk about the problems she is struggling with and Lorna not engaging with Daisy. Therapist would be good for them to talk about their issues as once their issues are identified, they will be able to try repair certain issue. They will be able to express their feelings and this will make them feel comfortable in opening up and being honest. This can be harmful in some cases as stress may accumulate and leave the parent feeling overwhelmed. Lorna needs to be aware of her issues in order to get the right guidance and support (Good Therapy, 2017).
Lorna will need help with housing as they live in a one bedroom flat with new baby, husband, daughter and mother in-law. The house is crowded and it is not healthy for children to be living in this condition. There is evidence that children that are in poverty is a barrier to learning, this can lead to poor parenting, alcoholics and drug addicts and it is also proven that child poverty has long lasting effects. Poverty effects children emotional development that has a negative impact on education. In this research it was showed that children from poor families experience emotional problems more often than middle, upper class children. This could affect a child intellectual development which prevents them problem solving. Children living in poverty who attend school hungry do not perform well in school especially on exams compared to wealthy children. And again, this links to Maslow’s hierarchy basic needs, that without them there is no progress (CPAG, 2018).
According to (Professor Peter Townsend, 1979) a leading authority on UK poverty, defines relative poverty as when someone’s resources are so seriously below those commanded by the average individual or family that they are in effect, excluded from ordinary living patterns, customs and activities.
Daisy needs supervision as she is suffering, this significant harm will be seen as bad parenting likely to be the parents fault. If the threshold is crossed, it must be in the child interest to make an order. It is not expected that a care order will be mad every time a child has suffered any harm. This is where working together to safeguard children policy is followed, when Daisy needs are identified, support is given as soon as possible (HM Government, 2006).
Looking at Maslow’s theory states that people progress from a secure base of basic needs and motivation, he also believed that being loved and belonged is essential to their self-esteem which could affect a child’s emotional and mental development. Daisy is not getting that attention from her family as the mother is not well, meaning that she is not well enough to take care of Daisy and her step dad works full-time. She does not feel loved or belonged, as she probably feels that the new baby is getting more attention (McGuire, 2012).
Bruises were found on Daisy’s wrists and lower arm, the threshold for significant harm has been reached. Practitioner should write what was seen and then report it to the line manager, where then social services and lawyers will get involved. Lawyers play an important role in child protection, helping to ensure that all parties including parents and children have strong support who are conversant with the law (Beckett, 2007:p14).
This is when the police will get involved; this comes in section 58 of the Children Act 2004. Police also have a key role in safeguarding children, they recognise the importance of inter-agency in preventing child abuse. Police are committed to sharing information with other organisation and they should be notified when an offence has been suspected of or been committed. Police will have to do a DBS check to see if Lorna husband has a criminal record to see if he has done committed a crime connected to causing significant harm to Daisy. This where the doctors gets involved to examine Daisy’s bruises to determine if it is non-accidental. They will be able to clarify and pass the information to the police in order for them to tae the next step (Department for Children, 2007;p 5).
Child Protection Policy is a guideline for organisation and their staff to create environments for children, it is a tool that protects children and staff and what action is required in order to keep children safe. It also demonstrates an organisation commitment to children (Child Matters, 2018). A meeting called child protection conference will be between Lorna, Danik, Daisy and other professionals involved with the family about Daisy’s future safety. This conference is aimed to look at all the necessary evidence and situations to determine how best to safeguard children and promote their well-being. This conference is held following an investigation under section 47 Children Act 1989. The conference will then hear out information about the family and concerns that have been made about Daisy, there will then be a debate whether or not Daisy is at risk of significant risk and be placed on the child protection register. Daisy should be placed in the protection plan as there are concerns of Daisy safety, due to the fact that Daisy’s bruises were examined to be non-accidental. Other professionals will be involved such as Daisy’s social worker, teacher and therapist. They all play a role in her life, so they see the parents struggling and can pass on information that could have an impact on Daisy’s development (Child Law, 2018).
The advantages and disadvantages of a formal Child Protection Plan can be discontinued if the child protection review conference judges the child is no longer at being a significant risk to harm. It opens the family eyes to do better to ensure that their children needs are met. Providing early help is more effective especially when it comes to promoting children’s welfare, this trusts other professionals working together with child and family. There can be conflicts between different agencies, professional and family members as there might not be any effective communication between professionals. With practitioner they might not want to say much as they know the family and it could make it hard for them. Family may not agree with other professionals about the allegation that is being made towards them or agree with the plans that will be put into place.
To conclude child abuse does happen and it has an effect on the well-being of the children and it stops children from achieving in the future, which is why assessments are taken to see where the child is in order to meet their development needs. It is difficult to be young and have tow children and living on low income at such a young age. This causes Lorna to be stressed, which will have an effect on her, and because she has lot on her mind. Lorna does not engage enough with Daisy that distances them from each other, this affects Daisy as will not feel loved and belonged. Other professionals needs to take tis factors into consideration and re-assess the family and give them the support that they need in order for them to do their job by raining their children healthy and happy. This will all be discussed in the children protection conference to by planning and taking appropriate actions.