Empowerment Career Women
The purposes of this literature review is to provide the reader with a general overview of the empowerment career woman in construction industry in Malaysia. Recently, construction work is a problem for women as it involves handling of materials and tools which may not been suited for women (Schneider and Susi, 1994). According to Gibbons and Hacker, (1999) numerous construction tasks pose significant ergonomic risks to women workers. As we all aware, women and careers is not an issues in Malaysia but it is the impact of the development and availability of the progress women to develop themselves to be more advanced.. Women nowadays show their excellent ability, especially when they are given the impartial opportunity in most field of country development. Therefore, women’s involvement in job market cannot be denied. According to the Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development, it shows that women are likely to be accountants, dentists, and lawyers which shows the highest percentage whereas the other professionals that involves in construction like architects, surveyors and contractors have lower percentage among women participation.
However, over the last decade, the number of women involvement in the local construction as professional is less but still continues to growth. Now, the women and her career are growing from year by year.An increasing the number of female workers in industry opened the eyes of all parties that 11 all women are able to compete in the era of globalization to progress and sustainable economic development. In this regard, the women also made new inspiration as well as competitors to men so all men not complacent with the abilities that they have.
Overall, it appears without any action and taken to discriminate against women but women in Malaysia have been given the opportunities as men in numerous field in the industry. This issue is given the attention from other parties which caused the women’s gaining recognition from world. The first part of this chapter gives a brief description about definition of women and construction industry. Next, a brief overview of empowerment career women in Malaysia. Finally, examplesthe challenges and issue between women that involved in construction industry
2.2 DEFINITION OF WOMEN EMPOWERMENT
Empowering women has become the focus of considerable discussion and attention all over the world. Today we enjoy the benefits of being citizens of a free nations, but we really need to think whether each of the citizen of our countries is really free or enjoying freedom, in the true sense of the term. The inequalities between men and women and discrimination against women are an age-old issue all over the world. Thus women quest for equality with man is a universal phenomenon. Women should equal with men in matters of education, employment, inheritance, marriage, and politics etc. Their quest for equality has given birth to the formation of many women’s associations and launching of movements.
Women's empowerment is the process in which women expand and recreate what it is that they can be, do, and accomplish in a circumstance that they previously were denied. Alternatively, it is the process for women to redefine gender roles that allows for them to acquire the ability to choose between known alternatives whom have otherwise been restricted from such an ability.There are several principles defining women's empowerment such as, for one to be empowered, they must come from a position of disempowerment. Furthermore, one must acquire empowerment themselves rather than have it given to them by an external party. Other studies have found that empowerment definitions entail people having the capability to make important decisions in their lives while also being able to act on them. Lastly, empowerment and disempowerment is relative to other at a previous time therefore, empowerment is a process, not a product.
Women’s empowerment has five components included women’s sense of self-worth, their right to have and to determine choices, their right to have access to opportunities and resources. Their right to have power to control their own lives, both within and outside the homeand their ability to influence the direction of social change to create a more just social and economic order, nationally and internationally.
It refers to increasing and improving the social, economic, political and legal strength of the women, to ensure equal-right to women, and to make them confident enough to claim their rights, such as freely live their life with a sense of self-worth, respect and dignity, have complete control of their life, both within and outside of their home and workplace, to make their own choices and decisions.
Furthermore, they have equal rights to participate in social, religious and public activities, have equal social status in the society and also have equal rights for social and economic justice, determine financial and economic choices, and get equal opportunity for education.