- Generic Structure of Narrative Text
Narrative text consists of generic structure that can be provided as follow:
This is the part in which the narrator tells the audience about who is in the story, when the story is taking place and where the action is happening. And Josephine S.M stated that orientation introduces the setting in time and place, and characters . It can also be called as introductory part of a story. So the reader can figure out what will happen next and who are involved in it.
This is the part of the story where the narrator tells about something that will begin a chain of events. It becomes the beginning problem that build the story and preface to the climax.
Climax is the part of narrative text that the conflict or tension hits the highest point. In other words, it could be say as the problems which lead to the crisis. In general, climax is in complication of the story.
This is the part that can be found in the end of the story. In this part, the characters of story find a problem solving of the event. The problem is resolved, either in a happy ending or in a sad ending. In some narratives, the narrator includes the part which is called by 'coda' if there is a moral or message to be learned from the story.
C. Concept mapping
- Understanding of concept mapping
According to Azlinda et al, concept mapping is one of the techniques that can be used for organizing and representing knowledge that include concepts, which are usually enclosed in circles or squares, and lines connecting the concepts.Trough concept mapping, the students have an opportunity to identify their own key concepts. Then they draw lines to connect and show relationships between the concepts. Linking words or phrases are used to define these connections.
Cañas et al state that concept mapping can be used many uses in education, business and government.In education, it is used for the assessment of what a learner knows. Concept mapping can be used as a tool in organizing information that student received, so they will more easily remember and understand the information of topic. According to Lee, the concept map is believed to enhance recall and memory, aid in negotiation and balancing of conflicting needs, and create mutual understanding.
In addition, concept mapping is prewriting activity that can be used as the first stage of the writing process. It is in a line with Sturm and Erickson, they state that concept mapping has been used for vocabulary development, reading comprehension, study skill, and pre-writing organizers.Through concept mapping, it helps the students to narrow their focus if their topic is too broad. Besides, teaching writing trough concept mapping will help the students to make composition and develop their idea.
- The Advantages of Concept Mapping
Concept mapping has several advantages for students as follow :
a. Helping students brainstorm and generate new idea
b. Encouraging students to discover new concept and the propositions that connect them
c. Allowing students to more clearly communicate ideas, thoughts and information
d. Helping students integrate new concept with older concepts
e. Enabling students to gain enhance knowledge of any topic and evaluate the information
- Teaching Writing trough Concept Mapping
There are steps in implementing the concept mapping in classroom:
a. The teacher gives explanation about concept mapping to the students
First, the teacher should introduce about concept mapping, such as: the usage, advantage and how to make concept mapping. It is to make student understand so that they have basic knowledge about concept mapping itself.
b. The teacher creates individual map first
Before asking students to make their own concept map, teacher should give example of concept map by creating his/her own concept map that related with narrative text. The mapping must consists of some elements of narrative text such as setting, characters, problem, and resolution. It aims to make students more understand about concept map.
c. The teacher gives example of concept mapping that should be completed by the students
The teacher gives simple example of concept mapping which is consist of some elements of narrative text and asks students to complete those elements. The students have to fulfill each elements of narrative text which was provided in the concept mapping. Then, teacher asks students to make narrative text according to the concept mapping.
d. The teacher asks students to create their own concept mapping
If the students already understand about concept mapping and they know how to make it, then teacher asks them to make individual concept
D. Previous Study
There are some previous studies related with the writer’s research. The first research comes from Kalsum Maloho. She has investigated Using Concept Mapping to Improve the Writing Ability of the Eight Graders. The objective of study was to find out whether the use concept mapping improves students’ writing ability. She conducted classroom action research as design of the study and had two cycles through some procedures: planning the action, implementing the action, observing the implementation, and reflecting the action. The sample of the study was twenty students (Class VIII-B) of MTs PKP Manado, North Sulawesi in the academic year 2015-2016. The findings of the study showed that concept mapping is not only effective on improving students’ writing ability of but also it is effective on enhancing their involvement in writing activities, particularly in generating and organizing their ideas.
In addition, Muhidin (2012) conducted a study with the title Using Concept Mapping to Improve Students’ Ability in Teaching Recount Text. This study was conducted at the eighth grade of SMP H. Isriati Baiturrahman Semarang in academic year 2011/2012. The objective of his study was to know the effect of using concept map to improve students' writing ability in teaching recount texts. The research method was an experimental research, which conducted in two classes; the experimental group (VIII A) and controlled group (VIII C) as sample. The VIII A was taught by using concept map, while the VIII C was taught without concept map (conventional method). The result showed that writing a recount text by concept map was better than the writing recount text without concept map because the score of post-test was higher that pre-test.