Destination Management Concept

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

Throughout the literature discussions various written materials-such as published and unpublished books, journal articles, thesis and dissertations, lecture notes, internet sources are reviewed. The issues of various actor (stakeholders) roles for sustainable use of lakes and cases of Sustainable tourism development theoretical framework were briefly discussed.

2.1 Defining actors

Bronwen Golder, (2005) defined an actor as, any individual, group, or institution that has a vested interest in the natural resources of the project area and/or who potentially was affected by activities and have something to gain or lose if conditions change or stay the same. Actors are all those who need to be considered in achieving project goals and whose participation and support are crucial to its success. Byrd (2009) stressed that determining the level of involvement and ‘power’ of actor according to certain characteristics, results, adopted knowledge and experience of actor, involvement in tourist offer and perception of the sustainable development in tourism should be important matter. According to the author, there are different categories of actor that affect tourist offer and demand differently, but act in common on a regulatory, economic and social level. The author added thoroughly that, the four basic interest and influential groups in tourism are government, local population, industry or entrepreneurs, tourists.

2.2Multi-actor collaboration in destination management concept & its bottlenecks

According to Andereck (2005) the implementation of sustainable development in tourism depends on involvement and interest of all actors within a tourism system or a destination, the concept of actor represents a possible presumption for its implementation. The author added that, the purpose of the stakeholder concept in sustainable development is to identify potential interest and influential groups in tourism; to involve key groups and all other interest and influential groups in tourism, and enable their participation in order to provide socio-economic prosperity to everyone. Some of the problems that may occur are also: distrust for the government or insufficient support of the government, inclusion of too much politics, too much administration or bureaucracy, exceeding influence of the key interest and influential groups, insufficient inclusion of individual interest groups, insufficient awareness on the need to participate, lack of guidance, wrongly defined priorities, goals and conduction strategies, etc. Blažević&Peršić (2009), had focused on the solutions for the said problem as well as for all the other problems lies in systematic, quality and effective management of tourism destination, most often addressed as destination management or destination management of organisations in the sense of strong, well-structured and institutionalized management that possesses all necessary material and non-material resources, but acts autonomously and responsibly with the support of public and private sector and local population.

UNEP & UNWTO (2005) also emphasized that effective Multi-stakeholder destination management concept lies in the stakeholder principles concept. The upgrade is manifested through the need of inclusion of all interest and influential groups in destination management system. Such an integrated destination management connects all participants that participate in creation and management of a quality tourism demand independently through the ‘power’ of their influence and interests, and direct or indirect participation. The need for stakeholder inclusion in tourist offer arises from diversification and fragmentation of tourist offer, respectively of more complex tourism demand.

Hall (2011) argues that assumption for a successful multi-stakeholder concept is the expert representatives’ participation from all interest and influential groups. According to the mentioned author the basic function of multi-stakeholder concept is connection and collaboration of actor’ different interests within a destination, in order to form a quality product and recognizable image of a destination, achieve the excellence and long-term competitiveness on the market, as well as the destination sustainable development. Surely, management of a large number of actor in tourism system is not simple and it does not happen by itself. Therefore, it is essential to have a certain organization to coordinate the work and goals of all actors. The writer believes that it can be virtual, profit or non-profit, an association or an entity at the level of regional or local self-government. Very often the role of government, as the key holder of socio-economic development, is emphasized within the concept of sustainable development based on the stakeholder approach.

Researchers Koutsouris (2009) and Hardy &Beeton (2001), mentioned that past researches identified management of sustainable development in tourism based on the concept of a bigger number of different actor is very complex and demanding, and often leads to problems due to wrong understanding of the concept of sustainable development or the impossibility of its implementation such management of sustainable development in tourism concept depends on mutual communication, cooperation and understanding among actor, while the lack of functional communication channel is being mentioned as an additional problem. The others think that each stakeholder has a different perspective of the development and different goals. Due to this factor, each actor has different expectations from sustainable development that must be harmonized. In this part, an important role belongs to the ‘salience’ of individual stakeholder at the market (power, legitimacy and urgency), respectively to its potential and role in tourist or destination system(Božena K. Miočić, MiliRazović, TomislavKlarin; 2016).

Insufficient or inadequate/ineffective communication between actor represents the biggest problem that as a consequence generates numerous problems. Thus, entrepreneurs(innovators) emphasize deficiency of communication, as they address insufficient collaboration and cooperation with the local government and other actor, insufficient communication and exchange of ideas on the level of local actors and local self-government, and, lack of someone to push them forward (BoženaK.Miočić, M.Razović, T.Klarin; 2016, p.110).

2.3 Role of various actors (stakeholders) for sustainable use of lakes & Best Practices.

According to Global Water Partnership (2009), many different interests can benefit from tourism being made more sustainable: Tourism enterprises, while seeking long term profitability, should be concerned about their corporate image, the relationship with their staff, and their impact on the global environment and that immediately around them. AGWP stressed, local communities are seeking increased prosperity but without exploitation or damage to their quality of life. It is generally believed that, environmentalists are concerned about the harmful impacts of tourism but also see it as a valuable source of income for conservation. It is commonly known tourists are seeking a high quality experience in safe and attractive environments; they are becoming more aware of the impacts of their travelling. In seeking more sustainable tourism, governments must recognize the different positions and motivations of these actors and work with them to achieve common goals. Other authors stressed on the issues of watershed management techniques focus on best management practices and include on-site best management practices, off-site techniques, and non-structural practices. They mentioned that the lake is fed by its watershed, so it is very important that restoration efforts also address the surrounding land areas. In the recent past, visual surveys were relied upon to identify obvious problems like channel or feedlots. Today, computerized pollution models are available to identify the less obvious but important problems. Once problem spots are inventoried, it is possible to identify the best management practices necessary to protect the lake. Best possible management practices are the most effective and practical means of preventing and abating non-point polluted runoff. According to them these management practices can stop pollutants at the site or at strategic points in the watershed (Heiskary, S., R. Anhorn, T. Noonan,R.Norrgard,J. Solstad, 1994).

2.4 The Potential Benefits of Collaboration of actors

Bramwell& Lane (2000) argued that, there may be involvement by a range of actor, all of whom are affected by the multiple issues of tourism development and may be well placed to introduce change and improvement. According to the authors decision-making power and control may diffuse to the multiple actors are affected by the issues, which is favorable for democracy. The authors clearly mentioned, the involvement of several actors may increase the social acceptance of policies, so that implementation and enforcement may be easier to effect. More constructive and less adversarial attitudes might result in consequence of working together. The parties who are directly affected by the issues may bring their knowledge, aptitudes and other capacities to the policy-making process.

Bramwell & Lane (2000) elaborated that; creative synergy may result from working together, perhaps leading to greater innovation and effectiveness. The partnerships can promote learning about the work, skills and potential of the other partners, and also develop the group interaction and negotiation skills that help to make partnerships successful. The researchers agreed up on parties involved in policy-making may have a greater commitment to putting the resulting policies into practice. There may be improved collaboration of the policies and related actions of the multiple actors. It is stressed that there may be greater consideration of the diverse economic, environmental and social issues that affect the sustainable tourism development.There may be a pooling of the resources of actor, which might lead to their more effective use. When multiple actor are engaged in decision-making the resulting policies may be more flexible and also more sensitive to local circumstances and to changing conditions.