Stanley Hall

TMA 04

Part 1:

Essay Plan

Main Points

Evidence/ Examples

References

Introduction- Overview of whole essay.

What the essay will include.

Introduction will only sum up the key points which will be made. The evidence is given later in relation to each point.

No references in introduction.

Paragraph 1- Definition of adolescence and how it is viewed.

What is adolescence, definition and views.

The changes that occur during adolescence. Adolescence is a transitional stage which happens between childhood and adulthood. During this stage, adolescents go through a transformation.

Chapter 13, Introduction.

Page 279-280

(Chapter 13, p. 279-280)

Paragraph 2- Argument for adolescence being a period of ‘storm and stress’

Stanley Hall’s theory about adolescence being a period of ‘storm and stress’.

Hall has been influential in shaping the way society thinks about adolescents.

He states that teenagers are emotionally unstable.

Chapter 13, Historical and contemporary psychological and social constructions of adolescence.

Page 280-282

(Hall, 1904, vol. 2, pp. 74-5)

Hall, G.S. (1904) Adolescence: Its Psychology and its Relation to Physiology, Anthropology, Sociology, Sex, Crime, Religion, and Education, vols. 1 and 2, New York, D. Appleton & Co.

Paragraph 3- Argument against adolescence being a period of ‘storm and stress’

Bandura’s challenges to Stanley Hall, stating adolescence is not a period of storm and stress. His theory states that adolescents and their parents have the same respect for each others and their rules and values.

Chapter 13, Historical and contemporary psychological and social constructions of adolescence.

Page 282-284

(Bandura, 1964)

Bandura, A. (1964) ‘The stormy decade: fact or fiction?’ Psychology in the Schools, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 224-31

Paragraph 4- Argument for adolescence being a period of ‘storm and stress’

Erik Erikson’s theory expands on Hall’s theory proposing that adolescents go through a time of crisis. It is this time which individuals try to find what is unique about themselves and what makes them stand out.

Chapter 13, Social development in adolescence.

Page 293-295

(Erikson, 1968)

Erikson, E. (1968) Identity: Youth and Crisis, New York, Norton.

Paragraph 5- Argument against adolescence being a period of ‘storm and stress’

Jean Piaget has suggested that adolescents do not find adolescence a turbulent time. His theory suggests that it is during adolescence that cognitive development occurs, which is closely linked to psychological changes in the brain.

Chapter 13, cognitive development in adolescence.

Page 284-287

(Piaget, 1958)

Paragraph 6- Theory of cognitive development. Building on Piaget's theory.

Lawrence Kohlberg shared the same views with Piaget. He built on Piaget’s theory of cognitive development. He suggested that the development of moral reasoning goes past childhood and into adolescence.

Chapter 13, development of moral reasoning.

Page 288-292

(Kohlberg, 1981)

Kohlberg, L. (1981) Essays on Moral Development, vol. 1: The philosophy of moral development, San Francisco, CA, Harper & Row.

Conclusion Summary of points made in essay.

Closing points that relate to and sum up previous points made.

Evidence is supplied earlier, conclusion sums up key points made.

No references in conclusion.

(494 words)

Part 2:

Introduction

Adolescence is seen as an important period in an individual’s life. This essay will be looking at adolescence and how it is portrayed and how it is portrayed as being a period of ‘storm and stress’. In this essay, there will be different views and theories from many different psychologists, such as Stanley Hall and Jean Piaget, and how they view adolescence.

Adolescence is a period of time when an individual develops, it is recognised by psychologists as an important period of an individual’s life. During this time, important physiological changes take place and individuals develop in cognitive, social and emotional aspects of their life. No exact age has been identified of the time which adolescence starts and finishes. However, many researchers have agreed that adolescence is a transitional stage that comes between childhood and adulthood. During this time, individuals face rapid physical changes, such as rapid growth in weight and height, which occurs along with teenage years. Not only do physical changes occur within individuals, but they go through a transformation with the way they think and learn about the world and how they develop their social relationships.

Stanley Hall (1904, cited in OU 2018) produced writings based on the nature of adolescence. Hall’s ideas have been influential in shaping the way which society thinks about adolescence. These writings have been considered to be the start of the scientific interest of this period of time for an individual's life. Within these writings, Hall (1904) stated that teenagers are emotionally unstable and refers to adolescence as being a turbulent times for most individuals. Stanley Hall (1940) has used the term ‘storm and stress’ which came from a time in the development of the German Romanticism. This brings attention to being at one with nature, human individuality and the freedom to demonstrate the extremes of emotions. He brought forward the views that during the period of adolescence, teenagers are more likely to have an increase of conflict with their parents, as well as having disruptions in their mood and behaviour. Hall finally suggested that teenagers going through adolescence need to be handled carefully which can only be done through the education system.There have been many criticisms made against Stanley Hall’s writings. One of these criticisms includes that Hall made claims based on data that had not been fully questioned, and he has showed that he does not fully understand the biological basis of adolescence. Hall’s moral viewpoints influenced the way he wrote. One of the biggest criticisms he faced was the suggestion he made that adolescence is a turbulent time for everyone. Not every individual finds adolescence to be a stressful time, however,this can depend on the cultural environment, individual’s experiences and family dynamics.

Albert Bandura challenged Hall’s writings of adolescence being a period of ‘storm and stress’. Bandura (1946, cited in OU 2018) conducted a study and found that most young people do not live through a period of turbulence. Many of the long-standing views of adolescence being a period of ‘storm and stress’ is due to the way the media portrays it. Bandura’s 1964 paper outlined the popular beliefs of adolescence as a time which teenagers struggle to remove themselves from their parents and becoming rebellious where unfounded. He suggested instead that parents and adolescents have the same respect for one another and understood each others values and rules. From his study he found that the adolescent boys relied on both friends and parents when seeking advice. Bandura’s study influenced most contemporary psychologists views about adolescence not being universal but instead, being influenced by the social beliefs and cultural expectations. The idea of adolescence being a universal experience has been deemed too simplistic to be able to capture how complex this period of an individual’s life is. During adolescence, changes occur in social and personal development, and these changes become clear. Individuals discover different types of social relationships whilst also developing their identity, this is done by forming different relationships with their friends, parents and other social groups.

Similar to Stanley Hall, Erik Erikson (1968, cited in OU 2018) has also proposed a theory that adolescents experience a period of crisis in regard to their self esteem and they progress through different identities. Erik Erikson’s psychosocial stage theory suggested that adolescents are more likely to go through an identity crisis, in this time individuals try to discover the uniqueness of themselves and what makes them stand out from everyone else. Erikson has named this period the stage of ‘identity versus identity confusion’. This stage is related to Hall’s theory of ‘storm and stress’ as Erikson has suggested that adolescents are seen as having a crisis that needs to be resolved, whilst trying to find their personal strengths and weaknesses which can be a stressful and turbulent time for adolescents. He has also suggested that adolescents who have difficulties in finding a balance between what they see themselves being and the identities they explore, end up finding life difficult.

Cognitive development in adolescence is an important time for the brain, during this time the part of the brain that develops is the part which enables individuals to think, evaluate and make complicated judgements. These cognitive developments are linked to the psychological changes in the brain. Cognitive development is the start of an individual's ability to think, reason with and understand the world. Cognitive abilities include an individual's ability to use numbers, solve problems and make decisions on different levels of reasoning.

Jean Piaget developed a theory to show the changes of cognitive development starting from infancy to adolescence. Piaget stated that a major shift occurs during the period of adolescence, this shift is the ability of adolescents being able to think beyond the situation and move towards being able to think about what might be. Instead of looking at situations as having clear, set answers. He found that adolescents are able to manage the problems that have a variety of answers. Adolescents are not relying solely on their previous experiences in order to solve any problems they face. It is Piaget’s fourth, formal operational, stage that adolescents move through between 11-16. The development of abstract, organised thinking and hypothetical reasoning about the world around them is the way this stage has been characterised. Piaget does not say that individuals go through a stressful and turbulent time when going through the period of adolescence. Instead, his theory suggests that individuals go through the formal operational stage at some point and it is the stage which is the most important part for the development of cognitive skills. Even though this is one of the most well-known theories, it does have its criticisms. The first one being that a large section of his writing is based on his study of his own children and other children from high socio-economic groups. Meaning his study did not represent the general population, and he had ignored the impact which social context has on children growing up.

The development of moral reasoning is the ability to think in different ways and consider hypothetical situations, it can also allow individuals to develop a moral understanding of the world. Lawrence Kohlberg (1981, cited in OU 2018) expanded on and developed Piaget’s theory of cognitive development. Kohlberg developed a theory with stages of morality, which describes how moral reasoning develops in a three level sequence. Kohlberg had similar views to Piaget, being that high levels of moral reasoning could only be reached when individuals had reached the highest levels of cognitive development at the same time. Kohlberg suggested that moral judgements go past childhood and into adolescents, unlike what Piaget has previously suggested. Kohlberg's theory has three levels, each of which has two stages. These levels are the pre-conventional level, the conventional level and the post-conventional level. It is the second level, the conventional level, that is shown in both adolescents and adults, at this level, individuals are able to judge the morality of people’s actions. They do this by comparing the actions to the expectations and views of society. It is level 2 where stages 3 and 4 are located, stage 3 is good boy- good girl orientation and stage 4 is law and order orientation. Stage 3 is the stage where individual express their desire to gain and maintain the approval of society and stage 4 is where individuals then follow society’s rules as they find it important to maintain their presence in society. Kohlberg’s theory is an important way to understand adolescents and how individuals work through this stage of development. This theory has also been influential in forming many psychologists’ knowledge about moral and cognitive development along with an adolescents transition into adulthood.

Conclusion

This essay has looked at many different viewpoints from psychologists about adolescence. Adolescence is an important period of time in an individual’s life, during which physical, social and cognitive changes occur. Stanley Hall produced a theory suggesting that adolescents go through a stressful and turbulent time, he used the term ‘storm and stress’ to describe this time. Erik Erikson has expanded Hall’s theory and suggested that adolescents go through a time of crisis during adolescence. There have been many criticisms of Hall’s work, one being he does not fully understand adolescence. Albert Bandura and Jean Piaget have both stated that adolescents do not go through a period of ‘storm and stress’, instead this period of time is heavily influenced by the media. If the media portrays adolescents as being rebellious, then that is how they behave, however if the media does not adolescents will not behave in that way. As a result of the different theories of adolescents, it has allowed psychologists today to think differently about the period of adolescence, and the changes which may occur.

(1630 words)

Part 3:

Whilst studying E102 I was able to develop, and improve many skills, such as academic skills. During my engagement with E102 I was provided with many opportunities to develop my academic skills, this has allowed me to be able to develop my academic writing skills. I have been able to develop my writing skills as many resources were made available to me through the E102 module. These resources include writing academic essays on childhood, which is available in week 18, which includes a range of information about academic essays and essay samples. During week 18 I continued to develop my note taking skills and reading skills, and I began considering what makes a good essay and a good essay plan. Week 18 was not the only week that allowed me to being to develop my academic writing skills, there have been many other activities throughout E102 which have allowed me to develop these skills.Another way in which I have been able to develop my academic skills is through skills for OU study, in this section there is a segment for essays, which covers the structure of essays and what to include in essays. After reading through the section and taking notes, I developed my academic skills because I gained a full understanding of what to include in an essay and the format it should be presented. This has allowed me to make a significant development regarding my academic skills as it has supplied me with the information I need to develop these skills.

My thinking about children and childhood has been significantly influenced by studying E102. Before studying E102, I had not put much thought into children and childhood , however after studying my thinking has been significantly influenced. Rather than thinking about children and childhood as a whole, it has allowed me to think in more detail about how children’s lives are shaped and the many aspects of childhood. Social and cultural ideologies, such as ethnicity, religion, international childhoods and disability have an impact on how children's and young people’s lives are shaped. E102 has allowed me to think about how children and young people’s lives are impacted due to the aspects of childhood such as disability, I have been able to consider the issues with diagnostic labels for the identification and treatment of children with dyslexia. It has also influenced my thinking about formal education and obstacles children may come across during their journey of formal education, as well as my thinking about how even children are faced with racism and how it affects a child’s life. As a result of studying many different topics, I have been able to develop and gain more of an understanding about children and childhood because I have been able to study the stages and aspects of a child’s life, from birth to 18.

(474 words)

(2604 words)�

References

Bandura, A. (1964) ‘The stormy decade: fact or fiction?’ Psychology in the Schools, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 224-31

Erikson, E. (1968) Identity: Youth and Crisis, New York, Norton.

Hall, G.S. (1904) Adolescence: Its Psychology and its Relation to Physiology, Anthropology, Sociology, Sex, Crime, Religion, and Education, vols. 1 and 2, New York, D. Appleton & Co.

Kohlberg, L. (1981) Essays on Moral Development, vol. 1: The philosophy of moral development, San Francisco, CA, Harper & Row.