National Mission Swachh Bharat

CHAPTER-II

LITERATURE REVIEW

‘‘It is books that are the key to the wide world; if you can’t do anything else,read all that you can’’

-Jane Hamilton

The review of literature is defined as a broad, comprehensive in depth, systematic and critical review of scholarly publications, unpublished scholarly print materials, audio-visual materials and personal communications. The review of literature is an important step in the development of a research project.

  1. Nikita J. Utpal and Rahul R. Bogam(2016) conducted a study to assess the knowledge of school students about the sanitation and its effects on overall health. This was also the first study to create awareness among school students about Swachh Bharat Abhiyan as well as sanitation practices. It was an Interventional study conducted in one of the randomly selected public schools in rural field practice area of Bharati Vidyapeeth University medical college, Pune for creating awareness through 'SMART Health Education Model' . 100 students acted as participants belonging to 5th and 6th class. They were exposed to 'SMART Health Education Model'. Whole data from pre and post intervention questionnaire was entered into Excel sheet and keenly analysed by using 'Paired Test'. Study reported the favorable attitudes of participants towards Swachh Bharat Abhiyan and there was a significant improvement in knowledge about sanitation practices with the intervention of SMART Model. This study shows that even a simple intervention like SMART Model can bring significant changes in knowledge of school students about personal and environmental hygiene.

  2. Mr. M. Raja and Mrs. S. Anitha(2017) conducted a study to find out the awareness difference about clean India Programme of prospective teachers in Tirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu state with respect to their gender, locality, type of family, type of college, religion, age, parental income. It was based of survey method by selecting sample of 60 prospective teachers by using simple random sampling technique. The study found that there was no significant difference among prospective teachers for awareness about clean India programme with respect to location of college, type of college, age, religion, gender, type of family and parental income. The clean India awareness among prospective teachers in general is at moderate level.

  3. Dr. Surendra Kumar Tiwari(2014) conducted a study to assess the awareness of national mission Swachh Bharat:Swachh Vidyalaya of middle school students of private school and Government school. Also this study was to develop awareness and making the students aware about the importance attached to national mission Swachh Bharat:Swachh Vidyalaya. It was based on 2 hypothesis which meant that there is no significant difference in student’s awareness in private school as well as govt school. It was based on survey method using stratified random sampling for schools. Two public and two private schools were selected in Khargone in Madhya Pradesh and 50 students were chosen from each school i.e. 200 total students. Standardized questionnaire was tested and data collected from samples of students. All students have answered the question asked in the form of story, pictures and poem. The obtained result shows that both private and public school students have creativity in common. Study revealed that the hypothesis found to be true. It means students of Government and Private School are found

to be Aware about national mission Swachh Bharat:Swachh Vidyalaya.

  1. Alka Chaudhary published a research article that attempts to find out the need, objectives and impact of Swachh Bharat Mission on overall economic development and various sectors of India. This study was based on the secondary sources of data or information. Different newspapers, articles, books, websites and specially Govt publications have been consulted to ensure effectiveness of the study. The present study based on the descriptive analysis. The study revealed that the Swachh Bharat Mission had a positive impact on overall growth of India. Swachh Bharat Mission is one of the critical link towards economic success of India.

  2. WaterAid(2016) conducted a study about an assessment of School WASH infrastructure and hygiene behaviours in nine states.This was to assess mandatory aspects of Swachh Bharat Swachh Vidyalaya Abhiyan and specially for Water, sanitation and hygiene(WASH)practices and to understand the functionality and usage and also the status of awareness of hygiene including menstrual hygiene management(MNM) . This survey based study was done in 453 schools of 34 districts across nine statesof Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Telangana and Uttar Pradesh in which WaterAid India works. The assessment used both quantitative tools(i.e. Observational checklist of WASH infrastructure) and qualitative tools(interview with teachers, principal and students and focus group discussions with students). A three staged purposive random sampling methodology was followed in each of the nine states. The study tools were translated into regional languages like Hindi, Telugu, Tamil, Oriya and Kannada. Study observed that in more than 80% of the cases water is available for drinking, handwashing,toilet use etc, except kitchen gardening i.e. 50% only. Almost 95% schools found to have functional toilets, and 76% were having separate toilets for boys and girls. But only three-fourth of students used the school toilets and rest one-third still going for open-Defecation. Common handwashing facilities outside the toilets were observed in 57% schools. On menstrual hygiene management(MHM) aspect, only about one-fifth schools were having facilities related to MHM. So overall we can say, there is a slight improvement in the WASH infrastructure in schools in last 2 years but still a lot can be done on behavioral change aspect.

  3. Government of India in 2014 with the launch of Swachh Bharat Mission also launched a national campaign called as Swachh Bharat Vidyalaya. This campaign is focused to ensure that every school should have a set of functioning and well maintained WASH infrastructure i.e. water, sanitation and hygiene facilities. WASH infrastructure is a combination of technical and human development components. In which, technical components includes some basic things like drinking water, handwashing, toilet and soap facilities in schools. The human development components includes the activities that leads to behavioral change in school environment and the practices that helps children to prevent water, sanitation and hygiene related diseases. These activities should be an important part of school curriculum and it will include all the stakeholders. It also depends on the capacity enhancement of teachers, community members, Non-governmental organizations(NGOs) and Community based organizations(CBOs). It also aims to improve the teaching methods and curriculum of the schools which subsequently improve children’s health, school attendance, enrollment in school and retention. This is every child's right to get these basic things as it directly and indirectly affects the children mental health and physical health both. So it is the role of policymakers, government representatives parents and citizens to make sure that every child should have a set ofproper WASH infrastructure.

On the basis of some studies that were taken by different institutions in many countries some facts got revealed thatwith the presence of water, sanitation and hygiene facilities in schools, there was an overall increase in enrolment of children in schools and specially the female child. It also improved the academic performance of children. Even with the habit of handwashing in children, it reduced the communicable diseases. The ministry of drinking water and sanitation issued guidelines for menstrual hygiene in schools in addition to the basic water, sanitation and hygiene facilities to children.