Single Journal Bibliomtric
Literature is the body of thought expressed in published writings. The primary role of literature is to record and transmit ideas or discoveries that bring in advancement of knowledge. In the field of Science and Technology, growth of literature is in an exponential manner. Therefore, the process of selecting the appropriate and relevant literature becomes critical and difficult.
Bibliometric analysis is the quantitative description of literature and helps in the measurement of the patterns of all forms of recorded information and their producers. It has extensive applications in the field of library and information science particularly with regard to studying the trends in a subject. It helps in formulating need based development policy and provides objective data to inform managers to take timely decisions. The first recorded study of bibliometric topic was in 1917 by Cole & Eales with the ‘Statistical analysis of literature of history ofcomparative anatomy’ which served as a model for applying the counting technique in the evaluation of international activities. Alan Prichard first introduced the term ‘Bibliometrics’ in 1969 to men ‘the application of mathematics and statistical methods to books and other media of communications’. Roy has defined bibliometrics as a ‘study process of information use by analyzing characteristics of documents and their distributions by statistical methods.
Bibliometrics is a new branch of information science. It has emerged as a handy managerial tool for library professionals to study collection building and evaluating, ranking of journals, identification of core literature, to know the structure of literature, to identify prolific authors in a discipline, to observe obsolesce of literature, to study user behavior and forecast their future needs. It helps in bibliographic control and in preparing trend reports. It can also evaluate the research and other activities of the institutions. Started with simple statistical bibliography/librametrics, it has developed as informetrics, scientometrics. The latest information technology and online availability of data developed the area into webometrics.
Nature is an international multidisciplinary scientific journal, founded by Alexander Macmillan and Daniel Macmillan published first on 4th November 1869, which is currently active from UK. It is one of the top most academic journal in the word. Nature is one of the top most scientific journals having high impact factor (40.137) in the world. The journal endeavor to bring recent trend in the wide range of scientific field. Frequency of the journal publication is weekly i.e. it publishes twelve volumes in a year and each volume has four or five volumes.
Review of literature
There are number of bibliomeric studies are accessed related to single journal bibliomtric study. Single journal bibliomtric studies are presented different types of bibliometric measures. It is identified that most of the studies are reveals, article growth pattern, authorship pattern, ranking of authors, ranking of countries, ranking of institutions, degree of collaboration among authors, co-occurrences of keywords and so on. Citation analysis also typically used in single journal studies based on analysis of number and distribution of citations referenced per article during the study period; authorship pattern of citations; most cited authors; types of document cited etc. The scope of the literature reviewed is limited to bibliometric studies on single journals in the field of science and technology by the Indian authors.
The required data for the present study have been retrieved from Web of Science Core Collection published by Clarivate Analytics. The basic data relating to total publications during 2013-2017, has been collected on May 5, 2018 using Web of Science. The basic search strategy used for collecting data for Nature was as follows: “Publication Name = Nature and; Publication Year=2013-2017; there are 59 volumes (from 493 to 552 including both volumes) of 255 issues (from 7430 to 7685 including both issues) are published 13499 articles during 2013-2017 which has been considered for study. All the retrieved results were saved in text files and then imported into Micro Soft-Excel to arrange, evaluate and make the tables, charts and graphs for final study. Bibexcel software, citation report of the journal also use for analyzing the data.
Growth pattern of “Nature” journal
During 2013-2017, authors/researchers from around the world published 13499 research results to the “Nature” journal. The pattern of research output and the annual growth rate are shown in figure-1. It indicates that fluctuated trend of research output during 2013 to 2017.There are 2944 papers were published in 2015 which is highest and 2605 papers were published in 2013 which is least production during the study period. The average publications per year is 2699, during 2013-2017 there is no significance growth or decline.
Citation analysis of the published papers indicates that these papers received 454956 citations when accessed the citation reports from Web of Science. The highest number of 161728 citations was received on 2013 and least number of citations was received on 2017. The citation per paper for the entire output was 33.70 during the study period. From the table-1 it is clearly known that citations are gradually decreased year by year.