This essay will describe the characteristics of the contemporary nation-state. It is suggested that the nation is considered an imagined community, this means that the nation is socially constructed rather than it being a natural community. This notion will be explored in my essay as well as what the nation consists of. The essay will also explore how transnationalism contests the nation through a range of concepts which define transnationalism and the development of it. Lastly, it will go in depth of how the nation responds to transnationalism. This will all be interconnected through a range of examples and case studies.
A nation is not considered a natural community although it does have its basis in the French and American revolutions. It is considered an imagined community, it is socially constructed rather than a natural community. According to Giddens (1987), some of the characteristics that make up a contemporary nation-state are the population of the territory is combined in the national identity and traditions, has an authorised language or languages, has an organised government, have individuality and is self-ruled, and lastly, has a well-defined state and boarders. Some examples of these are, South Korea, Portugal, Japan and Iceland. Other nations without a shared culture are still able to develop a national culture around combined history. Some examples of these are China and India (Stuart 1991). According to Reich (1991), a nation is an outsized assembly of individuals who have a strong connection to their identities. An individual claiming ‘national identity’ usually constructed by the main aspects of shred culture, religion, history, language or ethnicity as Reich (1991) believes. In the modern days we live in, a nation is something so compelling and so much a part of the governmental and national setting, that individuals generally believe nations have existed since the world first began. Metaphorically, this is not the case and nations are aspects that people build on their own. Due to migration, most contemporary states embrace inside their restrictions varied communities that contest the idea of national equality and give growth to the group of residencies, rather than involvement in the nation. In the times of international transference and communication, new identities ascend to challenge the nation, although the challenge of nationalism relics as a powerful energy to be numbered. This also contests states together and supports several people understand out of an unclear reality, where usually it is not as easy to understand the different power shifts of nation. Therefore, a nation is considered socially structured and not governed.
The way migration works are as simple as a one-way street, it is rather complicated. Pries (2004) adds on to this notion and it is understood that they do not instigate from uncertainty and lead to certainty later down the track from areas which lack engagement and living chances to parts which wish to proposition improved “economic, political, cultural and/or social prospects”. According to Wills & Yeoh (2013), while it is not very clear that the ideas of the state are essential in the notion of ‘transnational’, earlier work on the developments of ‘transnationalism’, exceptionally in the field of national educations, lodged on the ‘death of the nation’. This has been strengthened somewhat with talk of ‘predicament’ rather than ‘death’, there is still extensive recognition that transnationalism is a challenge to the sustained presence of the ‘nation’, or further, the ‘nation-state’.Comparable influences concerning the part of the nation-state and contests to state power are also advocated. Fukuyama (1989), suggest that these contests are debated, coming from in the form of international power governments and international foundations, as well as continent-wide associations. Migrant networks and cross-border procedures of governmental involvement are viewed as appropriating the power of the nation-state, as potentials of transnational undertakings (Young 1990). For example, Hussain’s 2013 case study about the nation-state, ‘Bangladeshi: A Case Study in the Rise of the Nation-State’, interrelates with what is said about the nation. The case study outlines the Separation of India in 1947, both the promising countries of India and Pakistan each contests their complications of nation-state alliance; nevertheless, Pakistan's difficulty was impaired by the statistic that it had been physically distributed even further with its East and West fragments. The development of the People's Republic of as an independent nation-state in 1971 consequently embodies an important case among modern nations because Bangladesh's equally strengthening characteristics of nation and state were indeed separate from the period of 1947-1971. One of the key ideas of the globalisation works is the weakening of the nation-state, which is usually explored clearly although is correspondingly implicates the notion that we live in a global society in the modern world. It is, nevertheless, problematic to come to a complete agreement with this subject, mainly because of the varied connotations given to globalisation. Partially because it arrays across numerous focussed areas. Hence, it is clear to see that the nation is challenged by transnationalism.
Transnationalism refers to that which occurs along national borders. It can be used to define both substantial connections, representative movements and interconnections. As an impression, transnationalism is used most regularly to designate a method of modern movement in which immigrants’ form extended‐standing shared relations and commitments to more than just one national community (Willis & Yeoh 2013). The restricted facility of national governments to follow any schedule that has not been permitted by international principals and its substitutions is no longer the only issue they should deal with. The nation state is the key self-governing object that residues. "By many measures, corporations are more central players in global affairs than nations," writes Stuart Haul (1991). He also adds, "we call them multinational but they are more accurately understood as post national, transnational or even anti-national. For they abjure the very idea of nations or any other parochialism that limits them in time or space”. This inconsistency is not something that is a shock to people as it is not something that is new. Of course, it is surely because it has sustained, defied but practically unrestrained, for over a generation. The growing number of transnational law and society leads to a loss of national sovereignty. The growth of the nation-state was indivisible compared to the growth of international structures. Its self-rule was based on the values of national power and the prescribed equivalence of all states as Giddens (1987) has highlighted. The nation-state was permanently part of an organisation of nation-states, which altered upon the manufacture and preservation of the international standards that acknowledged and secured them. Furthermore, we can depict how nations have responded to transnationalism.
Far from being opposing to the nation-state, transnationalism has been essential to its growth, dissemination and preservation. During the early years of life, the construction of transnational territories that spread across the globe inspired the growth of the nation. Although, the nation was just considered an imagined community, rather than meaning that the nation is constructed by governments. It stayed as a socially constructed state and being a natural community. This idea of nation was discovered in my essay as well as what the nation involves. It also explored the notion of how transnationalism challenges the nation in several ways through several thoughts which define what transnationalism is and the development of it. Lastly, the essay showed in-depth how the nation responded to transnationalism.