Bernardez Et Al
Linguistic Levels.One way of interpreting and proving good reasons behind why the author wrote such poem in way where lots of punctuation marks or none of it are done, why there are uncommon number of lines in a stanza, why such peculiar spacing is done, even at the rhythmic patterns and arrangement of sentence patterns used are observed in a poem, may be answered by addressing a comprehensive analysis of its linguistic levels under the concept of stylistics.
According to Simpson (2004), stylistics is an act of exploring how language is used by a writer. It is the study of the why the writer styles their literary works. Every writer has style in the way how they want to express their ideas. Different style of the authors also serves as their ‘mark’ of identity in literature.
Moreover he also elaborated that language is broad, however, its mass of sounds and symbols are systematized. Each part is included as a complex web levels connectedly organize to each other. These levels are said to be interconnected as they interpenetrate and depend upon one another. The levels represent multiple and synchronized linguistic operations in planning and production of an utterance. These linguistic levels when applied in the stylistic analysis of a text make the analysis itself more organised and principled.
The distinct linguistic levels are identified as:
- Graphology. This is the study of the handwriting of a writer such as its physical characteristics and patterns, indicating the psychological state at the time of writing or even estimating the character’s features. Graphology goes yonder from orthography or it is describe as it goes beyond its conventions for writing a language. It refers to the whole system of writing including punctuation marks, spacing and as well as paragraphing (Leech, 2014).
Alabi highlighted that in graphological form of a piece foregrounding of quotation marks, ellipses periods, hyphens, contracted forms, special structures, the full stop, the colon, the comma, the semicolon, the question mark, the dash, lower case letters, gothic and bold prints, capitalization, small print, spacing, italics etc. must be taken to consideration. In other words, it deals with the systematic formation, structure and punctuation in the sentence (2007).
Additionally, Yeibo and Akerele (2014) stated that graphology is the level in linguistic analysis refers to lay outing of texts such as its size and the shape of words that is graphical or orthographical is under the level of graphology.
- Phonology. This linguistic level deals with speech sounds however it talks more at its abstract level. In Bernardez et al. concept, phonology is described as a branch of linguistics which is the study of speech sounds, and such sound changes in a given language that deals with both phonemics and phonetics. His concept of phonology is more concern about the systematic organization of sounds done in a language (2013).
Lodge (2009), pointed out also that phonology is the study of linguistics organization where it has such devices such as the rhyme, assonance, consonance, alliteration that can be found out in a piece of literature. These devices can be more notice by foregrounding repetition.
- Morphology. This linguistic level deals with the internal structure of words. In the notion of Bernardez et al. (2013), morphology is described as a branch of linguistics which deals with forming word and structure. This generally talks about the progressions of words which are appropriately placed together to show the meaning of usage pertaining to.
He elaborated that morphology also deals with the organization and interrelationship of the used morphemes in a word.Morphology also covers the identification, analysis, and description of the given language’s morpheme, with other linguistic units involved such as affixes, stress, parts of speech, intonation or accent.
Lexis. In poetry, this is done by the poets by deviating words in a special way that differs from its ordinary usage. Lexis is described as giving a word with a deeper value which express meaningful idea than it usual sense. The use of lexis in the poem shows aesthetic value at all (Leech, 2014).
Syntax. Syntax is about how sentence are formed starting from choices of words in detailed to extent a complete idea. Syntax deals with the analysis of all the placement of it components to result a meaningful unit.
In Bernardez et. al idea,syntax is defined as a branch of linguistics that deals with the organizationand interdependency of words in is such phrases, clauses and in sentences where choices of words are closely referred to grammar. Syntax simply refers to the study of sentence structure (2013).
Sharma (2014) also agreed that syntax deals with sentences where it is known as the largest grammatical unit which gives a complete sense. Syntax is addressed with the analysis of all the apparatuses of a sentence that lead to the formation of a meaningful unit. How words are arranged in particular order to produce a meaningful grammatical structure in a sentence is the subject matter of syntax.
Additionally, Tallerman intended that in th4 syntactic level in term of stylistics, there is a remarkable need to distinguish among phrases, words, nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and clauses where the analysis is made to find out foregrounding and deviations (2014).
Semantics. It deals with the meaning of language. It is depicted as a branch of linguistics which concern is all about the study of the speech forms meanings. It especially focuses on the development and changes of the meanings of words or group of words. The process of describing how a man presents the meaning of the word as figured out in his mind is one of semantics role. Semantics also talks about the representation of the sentences’ construction is used (Bernardez et. al, 2013).
Pragmatics. In the idea of Yule (2006), pragmatics deals with the way the meaning is understand base on the utterance or it is about the how the speaker influence his or her hearer or how the hearers interpret the concept. It is the study of expression of relative distance. Moreover, pragmatics is the study of what speakers mean.