Change Management Theoretical Foundation

An Essay about Power, Culture, and Politic

The purpose of this essay is to discuss about how an Organizational Manager, can insure that the changes he/she takes part in are not simply disguised attempts to further elite interests, but genuine attempts to create organizations that are aligned with broader human needs and aspirations? However, in response to the aforementioned questions relevant academic referencing materials in Managing Change Module would be applied. Such as Power, Culture and Politics, as a manager inspired to take up challenges and motivated to learn new things. My desire to excel ignites the strong forces of persistence, Culture, power and politics. Hence, the willingness to always accept changes for the better and constructive criticisms

Literature review

Managing Change

Whether it’s likeable or not genuinely acceptable, change is enviable. “Change Management” According to Burnes, 1996, p. 173) he outlined the Change management theoretical foundation as “is not a distinct disciplines with rapid and clearly defined boundaries. Rather the theory and practise of change management draws on a number of social science disciplines and tradition. Though this is one of its strengths, it does make the task of tracking its origins and defining its core concepts more difficult than might otherwise is the case. The task is complicated further by the simple fact that the social science themselves are interwoven. As an example, theories of management education and learning, an important component of change management, cannot be fully discussed without reference to theories of child and adult psychology. Nor can these be discussed without the touching on theories of knowledge (epistemology) which are they a veritable philosophical minefield” (Burnes, 1996 p.173)

Furthermore, I would manage change as when a manager is creating or handling most of the changes for the sake of his /her organization. In every organization managers should never for once attempt change without a thorough examination of the 4p’s of Management Change.

source @ University of Sheffield )Human Resource, online, available at: ( ) accessed: 20th April,20118.



Most social scientists have an intuitive notion of what 'power' means. Yet, social scientists have been unable to formulate a statement of the concept that is rigorous enough to be used in a systematic study of this important social phenomenon. The more social scientists attempt to define Power, the more complex it is found to be. To say that certain individuals have more or less "power" than others is one of the palpable facts of human existence. Parent-child, chief-patrolman, professor-graduate student, professional-amateur are all relationships which imply the notion of power (Peabody,1964).

The concept of power is as ancient as any that social theory can boast. To document this assertion, one could cite a series of social philosophers from Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle through Machiavelli and Hobbes to Pareto, Mosca, Weber and Durkheim to demonstrate that a large number of seminal theorists have devoted a great amount of their thought to the concept of power and the implications associated with it (Dahl, 1957). Because so many social scientists, at varying times in history have felt the need to attach the label 'power' to some Thing they believed they had observed, one is tempted to think that the Thing must exist. Beyond existing, the Thing must be of a form capable of being studied in an empirical manner. Many social scientists have thought of power as existing even in a "potential" state. The notion of "potentiality" has persuaded social scientists to use indirect measures of power and often it has prompted them to ask rhetorical questions about the relationship between desirable social facts (e.g., class stratification) and power.


According to, Peter and Waterman (1982) and Kanter (1983;1989) have suggested that there are common culture related attributes associated with organization recognized as being master of change.Peak in unemployment rate Barley and Kunda (1992): when the economy expands, profit can be made by rationalising operations. But when the economy is in contraction, the only way to sustain profits is by squeezing more out of the workers Two best-sellers: Peters, T. and Waterman, R. (1982) Deal, T.E. and Kennedy, A.A. (1982). Mathew Arnold (1882) defines culture as being the study and pursuit of perfection through the acquisition of knowledge. He sees culture as intelligence, as a character of perfection, expressing that culture to him is coming to reason through reading, observing and thinking.Woolfolk and Margetts (2007) define culture in a different light and state that culture is "The knowledge, values, attitudes and traditions that guide the behavior of a group of people" (p.181).

Therefore “a group of people" A group of people can be a family members with similar norms and values equally, a society at large who are handle by common beliefs and characters which constantly keep changing in the run of time.

(Cultural teaching in the context of traditional school learning, 2005). Citizens of China will no doubt agree that their culture in the 21st century is vastly different to that of the Ming Dynasty.Culture is integrated at every stage of education. Vygotsky's social constructivist theory involves the influence of culture in children's development particularly in relation to tools or cultural artefacts (Salmon & Perkins, 1998). These cultural tools can range from books to computers and include language tools such as reading and writing (McInerney & McInerney, 2002). Children are immersed in their culture, represented by the tools, social structures and text, to such a degree that it by necessity dictates their cognitive development (Salomon & Perkins, 1998).Maria Chilcott (27 February, 2008) reminds us that teachers have a social and moral obligation to encourage students in recognising, understanding and celebrating their own culture and this is particularly true in Australia as our land is very rich in cultural diversity. Educators have a responsibility to respect cultures, respecting the freedom of choice to...