Global Governance Gaps
This essay will discuss if International Organisations (IOs) can make a meaningful contribution to global governance by looking at two global governance gaps namely knowledge gaps and normative gaps and if International organisations can fill these gaps or not and how it can or cannot (Thakur and Weiss: 2010)?
- Problem with global governance:
The problem with global governance according to Thakur and Weiss (2010) is that there are several gaps in global governance namely knowledge gaps, normative gaps, policy gaps, institutional gaps and compliance gaps which prohibits international actors from solving international problems. Therefore if International Organisations are able to fill these gaps they are able to make a meaningful contribution to global governance.
- Cause of global governance gaps:
3.1 Knowledge gaps:
Knowledge gaps are when states cannot agree about the magnitude or causes of an issue or even agree if the issue is real because of an lack of information (Thakur and Weiss: 2010). This could lead to wrong policies being formed for example SEATO failed because states did not agree on the concept of collective defence, what it was the best way to secure security or that it was even possible (Acharya: 2011). Most Asian countries did not believe that collective defence would work, they believed that they were best capable of solving their own problems (Acharya: 2011). Global warming was debate about for a long time whether or not it was real do to a lack of evidence and information, this also shows a knowledge gap (Thakur and Weiss: 2010). Some still believe that is not real.
3.2 Normative Gaps:
Normative gaps are caused when norms are not universally accepted and therefore laws cannot be formed (Thakur and Weiss: 2010). Thakur and Weiss explain how norms can become laws. They say that first norms are advocated for by groups and then they become more widespread through society until they are almost accepted by the whole society and then they become laws because these things are already seen as the morally right thing to do (Thakur and Weiss: 2010).
This is important in global governance because if norms are globally accepted and become laws it will help to solve problems. It will help solve problems because actors or participants will be force then to implement solutions. For example the world trade organisation established rules for trade from norms that were globally accepted (Dwivedi: 2012). Therefore if norms are not accepted globally laws cannot be made and this will make problem solving difficult because actors will not be held accountable for what they do or do not do. Before the norm of sovereignty was established countries would invade other countries because nothing held them back.
- How International Organisations fill global governance gaps and contribute to global governance:
4.1 How Knowledge gaps can be filled by International Organisations:
International organisationscan fill knowledge gaps because International organisationsgather information and can generate new knowledge which helps states to come to a conclusion of what the most effective way is of solving the issue and whether the subject brought to IO attention is an issue (Thakur and Weiss: 2010). Dwivedi (2012) in her article says that international organisations coordinate action by providing information. For example the environment was not important until information about it was brought to the UN’s general assembly to be discussed and debated. The UNEP was then formed to gather more information and reports annually new findings and statistics which help states to form comprehensive solutions like how to create sustainable development. Therefore International organisations can act as arenas for cooperation like liberalist believe (Karns and Mingst).Dwivedi (2012) says that the politics of global governance shows the struggle over knowledge, power and wealth. Therefore International Organisations also help to subdue the struggle over knowledge because they share knowledge among all of its members and even non-members. The IMF and World Bank have shared ways in which countries can alleviate poverty.
4.2 How normative gaps can be filled by International Organisations:
International organisations fill normative gaps because International organisations process and establish norms into laws (Thakur and Weiss: 2010). Dwivedi says that international organisations monitor behaviour like the EU facilitates common investment in some issue areas by legalizing cooperation and making informal influences difficult to exercise (Dwivedi: 2012).
Also according to Frederking and Diehl (2010) liberalist argue that international organisations provide an arena where states can develop shared norms. International organisations such as the UN also allows for norms to be advocated. Human rights before the UN established them as laws were norms. Frederking and Diehl’s (2010) say that the rules of world politics are made by international organisations, norms and other global actors. Women’s advocacy groups and environmental advocacy groups also helped establish norms by working with UN departments for example the women’s major group. Realists say that members of International Originations are usually either state members or state representatives. Therefore International Organisations are tools of states (Frederking and Diehl: 2010).Thus actors in International organisations care about what other actors think of them and are likely to comply with norms because it will benefit them in the long run (Thakur and Weiss: 2010).
This essay discussed how International Organisations can make a meaningful contribution to global governance by looking at two global governance gaps namely knowledge gaps and normative gaps and what causes them and how IOs can help fill these gaps.