Legislative Thinking Style
Sternberg asserted that creativity can be defined as the ability to create a piece of work that is novel, original, unexpected, high in quality, useful, and appropriate that meets task constraints (2003, p. 89). In business world, creative thinking has an important role to generate new ideas, identify opportunities and utilize them, and solve problems. Sternberg identified six distinct but interconnected resources that are required to achieve creativity in individuals, such as intellectual abilities, knowledge, styles of thinking, personality, motivation, and environment (2003, p. 107). To be creative, one must have the ability to analyse, evaluate and distinguish which ideas are well suited for certain problems. On top of that, respectively, the confluence of synthetic skills, analytic skills and practical contextual skills is important; Looking at problems in new ways, recognizing which ideas to pursue, and persuading others the value of one’s ideas. Everyone has a knowledge base, and it sometimes can become a hindrance to think creatively because of closed perspective. In other words, focusing on one field of knowledge can result in barriers to the process of creative thinking to move forward. As there are three types of thinking: legislative, executive and judicial; legislative thinking style favors creativity. Due to the fact that individuals with this thinking style prefer to create, formulate and plan things differently. In addition, personality attributes creativity functioning. Especially personalities that are possessed by entrepreneurs; willingness to take risks, tolerate ambiguity, determination to overcome obstacles, etc. Intrinsic motivation also plays an important role for producing creative work. One must have a specific goal for a certain task that he or she really loves doing to enhance one’s creativity. Last but not least, one needs an environment that is supportive and rewarding of creative ideas.
In relation to creativity, critical thinking is the core of intellectual abilities. Critical thinking enables one to analyse and assess information independently (Burton, Westen & Kowalski 2007, p. 46). The process of analysing, evaluating, reasoning, and drawing reasoned conclusions based on a specific information is for the purpose of problem solving. In addition to creativity, integrating creativity and critical thinking generating benefits in organisational context. Critical creativity is intended to be practically useful for employees as it aims to enrich the established approach of problem solving as well as improve the employees’ scope and capability on solving problems in the organisation. Moreover, critical creativity considers ideas developed from a wide variety of sources, which brings greater knowledge and understanding to employees. Due to the fact of such wide resources in idea generation, critical creativity can create diversity that provides many options for resolving organisational issues. Lastly, critical creativity stimulates the development of consideration at a local level; the creative ideas that are not considered to be relevant, will not be applied or implemented in the organisation (Ragsdell 2001).
In today’s fast-paced world, we need to continuously innovate in order to keep up with our competitors. Innovation is the process or action of creating something new, be it products, services, technology or systems, etc. When people talk about innovation, it is not only about embodying any ideas, it is about taking action to bring good ideas into realisation that drives one or an organisation to achieving a goal. It is not just organisations that have to innovate in order to survive in a fast-changing world, so are the individuals inside the organisations. People do not like change, however, it is necessary to understand the surrounding environment, spot opportunities, continuously adapt and thrive to innovate (Gower 2015). The most common type of innovation in a company is closed innovation, which all ideation generating, techniques and application occur within the organisation. Other forms of innovation include: disruptive innovation, incremental innovation, reverse innovation and open innovation.
Disruptive innovation occurs when an idea changes or disrupts the way industry works. It is usually called the ‘next big thing’ and happen to technological development. Disruptive innovation creates new market, value network and disrupt existing market. For example, the existence of artificial intelligence has both advanced and intervened the role of humans as workers. It facilitates the humans’ operation with small room of errors and it programmed for long hours and continuously perform without getting tired due to the fact that it is a machine. On the other hand, replacement of humans with machines can lead to large scale of unemployment. The other type of innovation is incremental innovation, which simply means the pursuit of small improvements that add up to make a big difference (Gower 2015). A great example of incremental innovation comes from Coca-Cola. Over the years, the company brings something new to its customer to stay relevant through its brand’s line, such as Coca-Cola cherry, vanilla, lemon, lime and many more. The other form of innovation is reverse innovation. Most of the time, international companies innovate products in developed countries and sell those products in developing countries. On the other hand, reverse innovation is doing the opposite, “developing ideas in an emerging market and coaxing them to flow uphill to Western markets” (Govindarajan 2012). This means innovating in poor countries and then selling those products in rich countries. It requires the company who applies it to change its institutionalized thinking and run into major changes inside the company: replace old organizational structures with new ones from scratch, altering product developments and manufacturing methods, and change the focus of the sales force. The company that is adapting this type of innovation is Harman International Industries Inc. Finally, the last form of innovation is open innovation.