Football Bowl Games


An annotated bibliography comprises of some citations to books, articles, and or documents; and for this case. In it, each quotation is usually followed by a short, descriptive and evaluative paragraph, which is the annotation. This annotation is often to give the reader an overview, the relevance, correctness, and the quality of the sources that have been cited. This paper annotates articles on how tourism events and the market can be improved.

Carlson, J., Rahman, M. M., Rosenberger III, P. J., & Holzmuller, H. H., (2016), Understanding communal and individual customer experiences in group-oriented event tourism: an activity theory perspective, JOURNAL OF MARKETING MANAGEMENT, VOL. 32, NOS. 9–10, 900–925.

Researchers from the various universities in the world, presented in this article argue basing on theories first to build a simple method of whole customer involvement in the event-tourism and group-based context that forms the basis of activity theory. The researchers theorize that the customer participation in group-based tourism gives some activity system that indirectly and positively in the promotion of tourism events. Using Getz’s (2008) topology, it is evident that the satisfaction and the value perceived are the outcomes of holistic customer experience and that it is necessary to create a normal and logical validity.

Khodr, H., (2012) "Exploring the driving factors behind the event strategy in Qatar: A case study of the15th Asian Games", International Journal of Event and Festival Management, Vol. 3 Issue: 1, pp.81-100,

Khodr from the American University of Beirut, Lebanon uses the methodology of case study in this article using to complementary data sources to identify the main driving reason as to why there is improved size of event market in Qatar from the perspective of people’s policy. Kodhr also tries to employ the opinion of theories from other scholars of various disciplines in social sciences, to explain the factors that affect public event and overall national event strategies. A qualitative methodology using explanatory and descriptive approach, and the results gave an identification of six factors that have caused the resolution made in the decision of event strategy and the hosting of a public event like the 15th Asian Games. From this case study therefore overall Qatar’s growth has been brought about by the implementation of experts and international professionals in all aspects of the economy.

Popp, N., Jensen,J., & Jackson, R., (2017) "Maximizing visitors at college football bowl games," International Journal of Event and Festival Management, Vol. 8 Issue: 3, pp.261-273,

Jackson, Jensen, and Popp, all from the University of North Carolina, wrote this paper to determine and separate factors that predict event attendance, to help the professionals of tourism to increase the visitors and optimize the revenue from tourists when hosting football bowl games in college. The researchers used hierarchical regression method with 16 demand variables and team related variables to feature state of the program and the performance of the current season. The results showed that the different factors such as the state of selected programs and how the markets are attractive foretell a necessary amount of increase variance in the demand of these events. The limitation of this study is that it doesn’t explain the variance in the number of attendees.

Smith, S. & Costello, C., (2009), ing & Management Segmenting Visitors to a Culinary Event: Motivations, Travel Behavior, and Expenditures, Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 18:44–67,

Smith and Costello from Southern Illinois University and the University of Tennessee respectively, n this paper argue that events that are associated with food often bring opportunities that increase destination attractiveness and boost culinary products. The two employ the use of questionnaires and population analysis to evaluate their prospects. The results indicate that culture is a motivation that promotes people to attend a culinary event which in turn backs up the theory that food can be used to promote the cultural image of a destination. According to the factor-cluster approach used, this study found three dimensions to of individuals that showed the significance of attending a culinary event; event novelty, socialization, and food event.

Stokes, R. (2008). Tourism strategy making: Insights to the events tourism domain. Tourism Management 29 (2008) 252–26.

The authors, the researcher across six Australian states were adopted in this article so as to lay out strategy which improving the discernments to the events tourism field. For this paper a two-step qualitative approaches involving; multiple case and convergent interviews. Of the six states, both Queensland and the Northern Territory are found to have events that are outside the territory tourism organization while the Western and Southern Australia have their development agencies inside the tourism bodies of the state. New South Wales has the mixture of both, in Victoria the development division in the state tourism body that looks after home-grown events. This article focuses on three out of ten schools of strategy to achieve their goals; designing, planning and positioning. There is a use of an interpretative methodology in this papers propositions and findings. The results are that the prescriptive strategies alone are not enough to deal with the timeframes and the complexities that make up the shaping of the tourism events.


Zhou, Qiao, and Ryan in this paper uses the qualitative research study approach to help in understanding the large difference between the medium-sized cities and the large cities and even in comparison with the small-sized towns and how they can build their potential in product marketing in the MICEtourism arcade. The outcomes from this research showed that a second and a third tier city in the event market of China has unique features and also has weaknesses like possible poor services of support. The results also show that the respondents seem to choose the locations that have strong cultural and tourism backgrounds for their event attendance. The study also notifies that cities large enough like Shanghai and Beijing are supposed to be in the global scale of competition in case the second and the third tiers regarding cities are to get opportunities from the second international market.


From the above articles, it is evident that several countries have different levels of performance in the tourism market. From a common point of view, therefore, every country in the world need to identify their weak points in the market and employ researchers and a team of experts to come in and improve the situation. Finally, these people should try identifying new items of tourism for instance mega-events, sports, and festivals in their region following the evolving market and tap the resources